Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Close Childhood Contacts of Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is Increased by Secondhand Exposure to Tobacco.
by IMO Adetifa on 25 July, 2017 at 1:01
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood
Evaluations of training programs to improve human resource capacity for HIV, malaria, and TB control: a systematic scoping review of methods applied and outcomes assessed.
by S Wu on 11 July, 2017 at 1:01
Owing to the global health workforce crisis, more funding has been invested in strengthening human resources for health, particularly for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control; however, little is known about how these investments in training are evaluated. This paper examines how frequently HIV, malaria, and TB healthcare provider training
Quantifying errors in the estimation of tuberculosis mortality in a population of South African miners.
by P Sonnenberg on 8 July, 2017 at 9:09
All-cause mortality, based on national tuberculosis programme (NTP) register deaths, may under- or overestimate tuberculosis (TB) specific mortality in the population. To assess the factors influencing this measurement in a single large population with high TB prevalence and mortality. Routinely collected data on TB cases and treatment
An evaluation of tuberculosis contact investigations against national standards.
by SM Cavany on 6 July, 2017 at 1:01
Contact tracing is a key element in England's 2015 collaborative TB strategy, although proposed indicators of successful contact tracing remain undescribed. We conducted descriptive and multivariable analyses of contact tracing of TB cases in London between 1 July 2012 and 31 December 2015 using cohort review data from London's TB Register,
Effect of Brazil's conditional cash transfer programme on tuberculosis incidence.
by JS Nery on 29 June, 2017 at 1:01
To evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer programme (Bolsa Família Programme, BFP) on tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil from 2004 to 2012. We studied tuberculosis surveillance data using a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design covering 2458 Brazilian municipalities. The main independent
How should discordance between molecular and growth-based assays for rifampicin resistance be investigated?
by S Hofmann-Thiel on 29 June, 2017 at 1:01
Molecular tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and genetic polymorphisms in the rpoB gene conferring resistance to rifampicin (RMP) have become integral parts of tuberculosis diagnostics worldwide. These assays are often performed sequentially or in parallel to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Discordances between
Feasibility of a streamlined tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation strategy.
by PB Shete on 29 June, 2017 at 1:01
To assess the feasibility of a streamlined strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation and treatment initiation among patients with presumed TB. Single-arm interventional pilot study at five primary care health centers of a streamlined, SIngle-saMPLE (SIMPLE) TB diagnostic evaluation strategy: 1) examination of two smear
- A novel blood test for tuberculosis prevention and treatment
Human Immunology of Tuberculosis
by TJ Scriba on 24 June, 2017 at 3:03
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and
Crude childhood vaccination coverage in West Africa: Trends and predictors of completeness.
by JS Kazungu on 9 May, 2017 at 1:01
Background: Africa has the lowest childhood vaccination coverage worldwide. If the full benefits of childhood vaccination programmes are to be enjoyed in sub-Saharan Africa, all countries need to improve on vaccine delivery to achieve and sustain high coverage. In this paper, we review trends in vaccination coverage, dropouts between vaccine doses
Analysis of the effects on the QT interval of a gatifloxacin-containing regimen versus standard treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
by PL Olliaro on 29 April, 2017 at 3:03
: Background: The effects on ventricular repolarisation - recorded on the ECG as lengthening of the QT interval - of acute tuberculosis and those of standard and alternative anti-tuberculosis regimens are under-documented. A correction factor (QTc) is introduced to make the QT independent of the heart rate, translating into the slope of the
The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis.
by K Dheda on 6 April, 2017 at 1:01
: Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and
Dynamics of Cough Frequency in Adults Undergoing Treatment for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
by A Proaño on 28 March, 2017 at 1:01
: Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough; cough frequency risk factors; and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and
Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort.
by SD Lawn on 28 March, 2017 at 1:01
We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of
Measuring mortality due to HIV-associated tuberculosis among adults in South Africa: Comparing verbal autopsy, minimally-invasive autopsy, and research data.
by AS Karat on 28 March, 2017 at 1:01
The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) deaths by 95% by 2035; tracking progress requires accurate measurement of TB mortality. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes do not differentiate between HIV-associated TB and HIV more generally. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate cause of death (CoD)
Migration to middle-income countries and tuberculosis-global policies for global economies.
by JM Pescarini on 21 March, 2017 at 2:02
International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage
Bottom-up or top-down: unit cost estimation of tuberculosis diagnostic tests in India.
by S Rupert on 18 March, 2017 at 6:06
: Of 18 sites that participated in an implementation study of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in India, we selected five microscopy centres and two reference laboratories.<br/> : To obtain unit costs of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB.<br/> : Laboratories were purposely selected to capture regional variations
Humoral Responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis Infection.
by SG Kimuda on 7 March, 2017 at 2:02
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB
Symptom screening rules to identify active pulmonary tuberculosis: Findings from the Zambian South African Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) trial prevalence surveys.
by MM Claassens on 7 March, 2017 at 2:02
High tuberculosis (TB) burden countries should consider systematic screening among adults in the general population. We identified symptom screening rules to be used in addition to cough ≥2 weeks, in a context where X-ray screening is not feasible, aiming to increase the sensitivity of screening while achieving a specificity of ≥85%. We
Financial barriers and coping strategies: a qualitative study of accessing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis care in Yunnan, China.
by C Hutchison on 2 March, 2017 at 2:02
Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) pose serious challenges to global health, particularly in China, which has the second highest case burden in the world. Disparities in access to care for the poorest, rural TB patients may be exacerbated for MDR-TB patients, although this has not been investigated widely. We examine