The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis.
by K Dheda on 6 April, 2017 at 1:01
: Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and
Dynamics of Cough Frequency in Adults Undergoing Treatment for Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
by A Proaño on 28 March, 2017 at 1:01
: Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough; cough frequency risk factors; and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and
Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort.
by SD Lawn on 28 March, 2017 at 1:01
We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of
Measuring mortality due to HIV-associated tuberculosis among adults in South Africa: Comparing verbal autopsy, minimally-invasive autopsy, and research data.
by AS Karat on 28 March, 2017 at 1:01
The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) deaths by 95% by 2035; tracking progress requires accurate measurement of TB mortality. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes do not differentiate between HIV-associated TB and HIV more generally. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate cause of death (CoD)
Migration to middle-income countries and tuberculosis-global policies for global economies.
by JM Pescarini on 21 March, 2017 at 2:02
International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage
Bottom-up or top-down: unit cost estimation of tuberculosis diagnostic tests in India.
by S Rupert on 18 March, 2017 at 6:06
Of 18 sites that participated in an implementation study of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in India, we selected five microscopy centres and two reference laboratories. To obtain unit costs of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB. Laboratories were purposely selected to capture regional variations and different
Humoral Responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR Regulon-Encoded Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis Infection.
by SG Kimuda on 7 March, 2017 at 2:02
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is evidence of immunological control of tuberculosis. Dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon-encoded proteins may have a role in the maintenance of LTBI. T cell responses to Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c DosR regulon-encoded proteins were found to be most frequent among household contacts of TB
Symptom screening rules to identify active pulmonary tuberculosis: Findings from the Zambian South African Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) trial prevalence surveys.
by MM Claassens on 7 March, 2017 at 2:02
High tuberculosis (TB) burden countries should consider systematic screening among adults in the general population. We identified symptom screening rules to be used in addition to cough ≥2 weeks, in a context where X-ray screening is not feasible, aiming to increase the sensitivity of screening while achieving a specificity of ≥85%. We
Financial barriers and coping strategies: a qualitative study of accessing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis care in Yunnan, China.
by C Hutchison on 2 March, 2017 at 2:02
Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) pose serious challenges to global health, particularly in China, which has the second highest case burden in the world. Disparities in access to care for the poorest, rural TB patients may be exacerbated for MDR-TB patients, although this has not been investigated widely. We examine
Serial QuantiFERON testing and tuberculosis disease risk among young children: an observational cohort study.
by JR Andrews on 25 February, 2017 at 22:10
: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT
Delays and loss to follow-up before treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis following implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF in South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.
by H Cox on 25 February, 2017 at 4:04
South Africa has a large burden of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), with 18,734 patients diagnosed in 2014. The number of diagnosed patients has increased substantially with the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, used for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for all patients with presumptive TB. Routine aggregate data suggest a large
- Modelling approaches for tuberculosis: are they realistic? - Authors' reply.
- The patient costs of care for those with TB and HIV: a cross-sectional study from South Africa.
Wildlife-livestock interactions and risk areas for cross-species spread of bovine tuberculosis.
by NV Meunier on 21 February, 2017 at 2:02
The transmission of diseases between livestock and wildlife can be a hindrance to effective disease control. Maintenance hosts and contact rates should be explored to further understand the transmission dynamics at the wildlife-livestock interface. Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been shown to have wildlife maintenance hosts and has been confirmed
Is IPT more effective in high-burden settings? Modelling the effect of tuberculosis incidence on IPT impact.
by R Ragonnet on 18 February, 2017 at 17:05
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective for preventing active tuberculosis (TB), although its mechanism of action is poorly understood and the optimal disease burden for IPT use has not been defined. To describe the relationship between TB incidence and IPT effectiveness. We constructed a model of TB transmission dynamics to
Primary macrophages and J774 cells respond differently to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
by N Andreu on 14 February, 2017 at 2:02
Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are the cell type preferentially infected in vivo. Primary macrophages and macrophage-like cell lines are commonly used as infection models, although the physiological relevance of cell lines, particularly for host-pathogen interaction studies, is
- Can tuberculosis patients in resource-constrained settings afford chest radiography?
'For a mere cough, men must just chew Conjex, gain strength, and continue working': the provider construction and tuberculosis care-seeking implications in Blantyre, Malawi.
by J Chikovore on 11 February, 2017 at 9:09
Background Delay by men in seeking healthcare results in their higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB) treatment and contributes to ongoing community-level disease transmission before going on treatment. Objective To understand masculinity's role in delay in healthcare seeking for men, with a focus on TB-suggestive symptoms. Design Data
Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study.
by K Dheda on 28 January, 2017 at 20:08
: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies.<br/> : In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance
Association of slow recovery of Mycobacterium africanum-infected patients posttreatment with high content of Persister-Like bacilli in pretreatment sputum.
by LD Tientcheu on 14 January, 2017 at 14:02
Mycobacterium africanum that causes 40% of tuberculosis (TB) in West Africa grows more slowly in culture and has similar transmission capacity compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but M. africanum-exposed contacts progress more slowly to active disease. The presence of lipid body (LB) containing M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) cells in sputum