Household point of care CD4 testing and isoniazid preventive therapy initiation in a household TB contact tracing programme in two districts of South Africa.
by L Page-Shipp on 10 May, 2018 at 1:01
In South Africa, TB household contact tracing provides an opportunity for increased TB and HIV case finding. We aimed to determine the effect of two new potential interventions for TB contact tracing programmes: Point of Care CD4 (PoC CD4) on HIV linkage to care and household Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) provision on uptake and retention of
- Author Correction: Genome-wide analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Attrition when providing antiretroviral treatment at CD4 counts >500cells/μL at three government clinics included in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa.
by P Bock on 24 April, 2018 at 1:01
WHO recommends antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all HIV-positive individuals. This study evaluated the association between baseline CD4 count and attrition in a cohort of HIV positive adults initiating ART at three department of health (DOH) clinics routinely providing ART at baseline CD4 counts >500cells/μL for the HPTN 071 (PopART)
Patterns of usage and preferences of users for tuberculosis-related text messages and voice calls in Uganda.
by JM Ggita on 19 April, 2018 at 1:01
Little information exists about mobile phone usage or preferences for tuberculosis (TB) related health communications in Uganda. We surveyed household contacts of TB patients in urban Kampala, Uganda, and clinic patients in rural central Uganda. Questions addressed mobile phone access, usage, and preferences for TB-related communications. We
Impact of pyrazinamide resistance on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan.
by J Kuhlin on 19 April, 2018 at 1:01
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pyrazinamide (PZA) in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) unless resistance has been confirmed. To investigate the association between PZA susceptibility and MDR-TB treatment outcome among patients treated with a PZA-containing regimen and whether the
High use of private providers for first healthcare seeking by drug-resistant tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional study in Yangon, Myanmar.
by SD Sidharta on 17 April, 2018 at 1:01
Drug resistance is a growing challenge to tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide, but particularly salient to countries such as Myanmar, where the health system is fragmented across the public and private sector. A recent systematic review has identified a critical lack of evidence for local policymaking, particularly in relation to drivers of
Small contribution of gold mines to the ongoing tuberculosis epidemic in South Africa: a modeling-based study.
by ST Chang on 17 April, 2018 at 1:01
Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static
by RB Barry on 17 April, 2018 at 1:01
Asserts that despite progress in controlling tuberculosis (TB), the decline in incidence has been disappointing, pointing to the need for new strategies and more effective tools. HIV/AIDS is one factor that challenges effective control of TB, especially in Southern African countries. Three key elements are needed to achieve effective TB control
Four-gene Pan-African Blood Signature Predicts Progression to Tuberculosis.
by S Suliman on 10 April, 2018 at 1:01
Contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients constitute an important target population for preventative measures as they are at high risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and progression to disease. We investigated biosignatures with predictive ability for incident tuberculosis. In a case-control study nested within the Grand
- Tuberculosis transmission during the subclinical period: could unrelated cough play a part?
Validation of the FluoroType® MTBDR assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates.
by D Hillemann on 5 April, 2018 at 1:01
For<i>Mycobacterial tuberculosis</i>complex the rapid and accurate diagnosis of drug resistance is crucial to ensure early initiation of appropriate therapy. Recently a new molecular diagnostic test, the FluoroType<b>®</b>MTBDR aimed at detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance has become available. This study aimed
Comparison of different treatments for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
by F Fregonese on 5 April, 2018 at 1:01
Isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible (INH-R) tuberculosis is the most common form of drug resistance, and is associated with failure, relapse, and acquired rifampicin resistance if treated with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The aim of the study was to compare success, mortality, and acquired rifampicin resistance in patients with
An explanation for the low proportion of tuberculosis that results from transmission between household and known social contacts.
by N McCreesh on 5 April, 2018 at 1:01
We currently have little idea where Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission occurs in high incidence settings. Molecular studies suggest that only around 8-19% of transmission to adults occurs within-household, or between known social-contacts. This contrasts with findings from social-contact studies, which show that substantial proportions
The impact of social protection and poverty elimination on global tuberculosis incidence: a statistical modelling analysis of Sustainable Development Goal 1.
by DJ Carter on 29 March, 2018 at 1:01
The End TB Strategy and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are intimately linked by their common targets and approaches. SDG 1 aims to end extreme poverty and expand social protection coverage by 2030. Achievement of SDG 1 is likely to affect the tuberculosis epidemic through a range of pathways. We estimate the reduction in global
Progress and challenges in TB vaccine development.
by G Voss on 27 March, 2018 at 1:01
The Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine can provide decades of protection against tuberculosis (TB) disease, and although imperfect, BCG is proof that vaccine mediated protection against TB is a possibility. A new TB vaccine is, therefore, an inevitability; the question is how long will it take us to get there? We have made substantial progress
- Uptake of governmental social protection and financial hardship during drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Clonal expansion across the seas as seen through CPLP-TB database: A joint effort in cataloguing Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in Portuguese-speaking countries.
by J Perdigão on 27 March, 2018 at 1:01
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem within the Community of Portuguese Language Speaking Countries (CPLP). Despite the marked variation in TB incidence across its member-states and continued human migratory flux between countries, a considerable gap in the knowledge on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and strain
Cough Frequency During Treatment Associated with Baseline Cavitary Volume and Proximity to the Airway in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
by A Proaño on 27 March, 2018 at 1:01
Cough frequency, and its duration, is a lab-free biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiological characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung
World TB Day 2018: The Challenge of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.
by A Gupta-Wright on 23 March, 2018 at 14:02
On 24th March, the world commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced his discovery of<i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i>(MTB). Over 130 years later, tuberculosis (TB) continues to affect individuals, communities, and entire health systems and economies. Koch unsuccessfully tried to 'cure' TB, and despite major advances in
Economic burden of HIV and TB/HIV coinfection in a middle-income country: a costing analysis alongside a pragmatic clinical trial in Brazil.
by N Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha on 20 March, 2018 at 2:02
The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system