Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.
by B Mathema on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty
Defining the research agenda to measure and reduce tuberculosis stigmas.
by K Macintyre on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Crucial to finding and treating the 4 million tuberculosis (TB) patients currently missed by national TB programmes, TB stigma is receiving well-deserved and long-delayed attention at the global level. However, the ability to measure and evaluate the success of TB stigma-reduction efforts is limited by the need for additional tools. At a 2016 TB
Long-Lived Memory B-Cell Responses following BCG Vaccination.
by I Sebina on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
: The role of T-cells in immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection has been extensively studied, however, that of B-cells still remains comparatively unexplored. In this study, we determined the presence and frequencies of mycobacteria-specific memory B-cells (MBCs) in peripheral blood from clinically healthy,
Diagnostic yield of tuberculosis using sputum induction in HIV-positive patients before antiretroviral therapy [Short communication].
by SD Lawn on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Adults (n = 602) enrolling in a South African antiretroviral treatment clinic underwent culture-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), regardless of symptoms. For those unable to spontaneously expectorate a 'spot' sample (n = 124), sputum induction with nebulised hypertonic saline was used to obtain a first sample and also to rapidly obtain a
Use of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube culture supernatants for measurement of antibody responses.
by SG Kimuda on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants may be important samples for use in assessment of anti-tuberculosis (TB) antibodies when only limited volumes of blood can be collected and when a combination of antibody and cytokine measurements are required. These analytes, when used together, may also have the potential to differentiate
- In reply to 'Empirical tuberculosis treatment or improved diagnostics?' [Correspondence].
Catastrophic costs potentially averted by tuberculosis control in India and South Africa: a modelling study.
by S Verguet on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
The economic burden on households affected by tuberculosis through costs to patients can be catastrophic. WHO's End TB Strategy recognises and aims to eliminate these potentially devastating economic effects. We assessed whether aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services might reduce catastrophic costs. We estimated the reduction in
Managing malaria in tuberculosis patients on fluoroquinolone-containing regimens: assessing the risk of QT prolongation [Review article].
by ME Murphy on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
The role of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in the management of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is under investigation. They are currently being used off-licence to treat TB patients who develop hepatotoxicity on standard therapy, and in patients with drug-resistant disease.Prolongation of ventricular repolarisation, recorded as
- Short-course untargeted isoniazid preventive therapy in South Africa: time to rethink policy? [Editorial].
Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study.
by WE Rudgard on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be
Predicting IFN-γ responses after BCG vaccination in humans from macaques: A proof-of-concept study of Immunostimulation/Immunodynamic modelling methods.
by SJ Rhodes on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Macaques play a central role in human tuberculosis(TB) vaccine development. Immune and challenge responses differ across macaque and human subpopulations. We determined which macaque subpopulations best predicted immune responses in different human subpopulations, using novel immunostimulation/immunodynamic modelling methods in a proof of concept
Designing and Evaluating Interventions to Halt the Transmission of Tuberculosis.
by DW Dowdy on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
To reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, it is insufficient to simply understand the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission. Rather, we must design and rigorously evaluate interventions to halt transmission, prioritizing those interventions most likely to achieve population-level impact. Synergy in reducing tuberculosis transmission may be
Cost and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment shortening: a model-based analysis.
by GB Gomez on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. We developed an individual-based
- Tuberculosis control in crisis: economic honesty and comparative effectiveness [Correspondence].
Estimating the impact of tuberculosis anatomical classification on treatment outcomes: A patient and surveillance perspective analysis.
by OT Ranzani on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Tuberculosis anatomical classification is inconsistent in the literature, which limits current tuberculosis knowledge and control. We aimed to evaluate whether tuberculosis classification impacts on treatment outcomes at patient and aggregate level. We analyzed adults from São Paulo State, Brazil with newly diagnosed tuberculosis from
- Location of Xpert® MTB/RIF in centralised laboratories in South Africa undermines potential impact [Correspondence].
Feasibility, Yield, and Cost of Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Linked to a Mobile HIV Service in Cape Town, South Africa: A Cross-sectional Study.
by K Kranzer on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active
Spot sputum samples are at least as good as early morning samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
by ME Murphy on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In
TB and HIV stigma compounded by threatened masculinity: implications for TB health-care seeking in Malawi.
by J Chikovore on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Urban Blantyre, Malawi. To understand why men with tuberculosis (TB) in the community remain undiagnosed. A multi-method qualitative study applying a modified grounded theory approach. Data were gathered from March 2011 to March 2012 from 134 men and women taking part in 1) focus group discussions with community members (n = 6) and health
The Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Four-Month Regimen for First-Line Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in South Africa.
by GM Knight on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
A 4-month first-line treatment regimen for tuberculosis disease (TB) is expected to have a direct impact on patient outcomes and societal costs, as well as an indirect impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to estimate this combined impact in a high TB-burden country: South Africa. An individual based M. tb transmission